Statement Analysis: Mengungkap Kebohongan?

Sebelum kita membahas apa itu teknik Statement Analysis yang mampu mengungkap kebohongan. Silahkan simak berikut ini. Banyak sudah penelitian sekarang salah satunya menurut The Association for Psychological Science (APS) memberikan kesimpulan yang sama seperti pernyataannya “metode-metode verbal dalam pendeteksian kebohongan lebih baik ketimbang metode-metode nonverbal“. Kesimpulan mereka ini dipublikasi dalam sebuah jurnal penelitian “Pitfalls and Oppurtunities in Nonverbal and Verbal Lie Detection (Vrij, Granhag & Porter: 2010/2011)”.

Dan juga pada penelitian yang lebih awal ke belakang mendapat kesimpulan sama bahwa metode verbal sangat baik mendeteksi kebohongan (Deception) bahkan menawarkan channel yang lebih banyak (O’Sullivan, Ekman, et.al: 1985).

O’Sullivan et.al (1985) Ada dua sisi yaitu Honest (Kejujuran) atau Deception (Kebohongan). Yang kedua sisi tersebut dapat diukur keakuratan dan keilmiahannya dari 4 jenis indikasi yaitu; (i) Isi Perkataan, (ii) Dinamika Suara / Bagaimana itu dikatakan, (iii) Ekspresi Wajah, (iv) Bahasa Tubuh.

Sisi Honest kata mereka peringkat pertama adalah diduduki oleh petunjuk Ekspresi Wajah, sedangkan dalam mengetahui sisi Deception peringkat pertama diklaim adalah dengan petunjuk Isi Perkataan (O’Sullivan et.al: 1985).

Dalam tulisan ini kita fokus pada Isi Perkataan saja. Prinsip & teknik investigasi hal ini ada seorang yang bernama Mark McClish yang tekniknya dia sebut sebagai Statement Analysis dalam bukunya I Know You Are Lying: Detecting Deception Through Statement Analysis (2001).

Sifat tekniknya seharusnya tetap memerlukan baseline behavior atau istilah lain individual difference. Meskipun McClish berdalih (2001) 99% teknik ini tidak memerlukan baseline, kurang lebih seperti itu dia mengatakan dalam bukunya.

Tapi kalau menurut saya sebagai penulis teknik ini baseline itu sangat penting. Nanti, di artikel lainnya saya akan berikan analisis dan bahas kasus nyata jika waktu memungkinkan.

Baiklah, sekarang kita masuk ke gerbang pintu ilmu ini melalui isi buku “I Know You Are Lying: Detecting Deception Through Statement (2001)” . Dua hal yang harus kita fahami, yaitu:

 

A. How to Make the Precise Question?

Bagaimana Membuat Pertanyaan yang Tepat?. Yaitu, hindari penggunanaan kalimat/frase bernuansa Compound Question atau pertanyaan gabungan. Kedua, hindari juga sikap Lousy Question atau sebuah pertanyaan yang tidak tegas

 

B. How to Get the Subject Talk to You?

Bagaimana Membuat Orang Mau Bicara Kepada Anda?. Yaitu, beri stimulus “Saya mempercayai Anda/Mu/Kamu.” jika dia ragu/terhenti bicara maka tunggu, jika terlalu lama, maka katakan “Lanjutkan.” dengan intonasi bukan tanda seru, tapi netral ataupun ramah. Atau katakan “Saya mendengarkan.”

Hal Kedua, adalah 10 teknik yang berguna menganalisis perkataan, daftar sebagai berikut:

  1. Did the Subject Answer the Specific Question?
  2. Did The Subject Answer The Specific Question with A Denial(s)?
  3. Did The Subject Answer The Question with A Question?
  4. Deleting-Distorting-Spamming Language Pattern
  5. Pronouns
  6. Personal Dictionary
  7. Order is Important
  8. Time References
  9. How Would You Answer the Question?
  10. What Hasn’t the Subject Told You?

 

Baiklah berikut adalah penjelasan tiap tekniknya:

1. Did the Subject Answer the Specific Question?

Did The Subject Answer The Specific Question?
Jawabannya seharusnya ialah Ya/Tidak di depan.
Contoh;

“Aku pikir aku lebih baik tidak menjawab itu.”

Saat ibunya bertanya ke anaknya jika dia mengambil sebuah kue, Anaknya bilang “Aku tidak menyukai semua kue-kue jenis ini.”

“Her Husband asked her if she made the telephone call.” “I haven’t been able to get a hold of her yet.”

“Is there any truth to that at all?” “Well, be-be logical about this. I’m…”

 

2. Did The Subject Answer The Specific Question with A Denial(s)?

Contoh;
“…menolak…”

“…menolak menjawab itu/nya.”

“…tidak bisa mengatakan…”

“It must have been right.”

 

3. Did The Subject Answer The Question with A Question?

Give a question related “Accusation”
Give a question relation “repeat your question?” atau “what your say?” [stalling for time / clarrification only]

Give semi-paraphrase/repeat question & Yes/No.

 

4. Deleting-Distorting-Spamming Language Pattern

Contohnya;
“…mencoba…”

“…benar-benar…”

“…tidak memiliki rencana…”

“…bermaksud…”

“…sesuatu yang…”

“…dengan yakin…”

“…memungkinkan…”

“…bekerja dalam tugas…”

“…patuh dengan aturan pemerintah…”

“…orang satu-satunya…”

“…tentu saja…”

“…melalui…”

“*spam word (e.g. “The blue car”)

 

5. Pronouns

“…Untukku…”
“…Bagi saya…”

“I left the car in the parking…”

[“the car” = non-posessive such as “my car” = possesive]

“…Grabbed the gun and …. tried to take it way from him.” [The missing “I”]

“We messed up, …” [Plural Pronouns “We”, bukan “I”]
“You do the best you can.” [2nd Person Pronouns]
“You(kalian) know, I am trying to be honest as possible.” [2nd Person Pronouns]

“I’m grateful that even those who believe in my guilt …” [indirect confession/taking responsibility]

“I’m the only the deserves it.”

“I would like to say to whoeven has my children, that they they please, I mean please, bring ’em home to us where they belong.” [Changing Pronouns “Whoever > They”]

“You must follow our instructions to the letter. Any deviation of my instructions will result in the immediate execution of your daughter.” [Changing Pronouns “Our > My”]

“I’m still her friend.” > not “We are friends.”

 

6. Personal Dictionary

If the person is telling the truth, his internal dictionary will remain consistent.

No Synonyms, because it’s speaking from the hearth.

You considers to see if there is a justification [Grammar language]

“Last saturday I got into my car and started to drive to Jackson ville, Florida …, I left my vehicle parked on the shoulder and walked to the nearest gas station to use a telephone.”

“Mobilku.”

“Kendaraanku.”

“I drew my gun. I pointed my gun. I fired my weapon. I holstered my gun.” [a justifiable change/truthful]

“Gun.”

“Pistol.”

“Firearm.”

“Handgun.”

“Revolver.”

“I am one hundred percent not guilty.”

“I had one thousand percent faith and trust in Nicoles’s decisions about the kids.”
Order is Important

 

7. Order is Important

…….

 

8. Time References

“I left the bar around 2:30 and returned home. At 6:00, I called …” > 2:30 returned home [missing time]

“I called Susan’s mother from Billy’s around 1:30 am to ask if she had any keys for Susan’s house…. I, then called Susan again around 1:30 am, 2:00 am, 3:00 am and last time was at 4:00 am.” [out-of-place time references]

“Last friday at 7:15 pm, I left my house and got into my car…. I stopped at the light at the intersection of memorial drive and 10th street. It was now 7:30 pm and fairly dark-outside…. I told the person working there (the gas station) to call the police because my car had been stolen.” [the time references add up]

 

9. How Would You Answer the Question?

…………………

 

10. What Hasn’t the Subject Told You?

………………………

 

 

Penutup

Berapa banyak indikasi kita perlukan untuk menilai seseorang telah berbohong? saya tidak tahu, saya hanyalah berusaha menginfokan teknik ini dan membaginya melalui artikel. Untuk itulah artikel ini berjudul dengan akhir tanda tanya.

Terimakasih.


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